We recognise that many of the words used in this document are understood differently and by different groups of individuals. For clarity, here we define the way in which we use some of the key terms featured in this guide. 

Bias: inclination or prejudice for or against one person or group, especially in a way considered to be unfair.1 

Benchmark: measuring the quality of something by comparing it to an accepted standard. 

Cognitive biases: mental shortcuts, or systematic patterns of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment. Also called “heuristics”, made popular in Daniel Kahneman’s book ‘Thinking Fast and Slow’.2

Diversity: the range of human differences within a group of people.3

Functional roles: positions in teams based on functional skill that can be tested to ensure group compatibility. 

Groupthink: the process in which poor decisions are made by a group (usually a group featuring common demographic characteristics) because its members do not want to express opinions, suggest new ideas, etc. that others may disagree with.4

Inclusion: inclusion is the act of making someone feel part of a group. 

Proactive: creating a situation, not reacting to a situation (antonym: reactive). 

Psychological roles: positions in teams based on personality types that can be tested with the Belbin or Myers Briggs assessment to ensure group compatibility. 

Social justice: fair behaviour or treatment for all members of society concerning the dissemination of wealth, privilege and opportunity. 

Stakeholder: any individual who has an interest in your company. 

  1. Oxford Dictionaries (n.d.). “bias”. [online]
  2. Kahneman, D. (2015). Thinking, fast and slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Note that the book is based on the original research paper of Tversky, A. & Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. Science, 185(4157), 1124-1131.
  3. Cambridge Dictionary (n.d.). “diversity”. [online]
  4. Cambridge Dictionary (n.d.). “groupthink”. [online]